French Historical Studies 1 February ; 42 1 : 67— He also worked to expand the meaning of the empire's identity by defining it not only as a political program within France but also as an expansive, multinational structure. The article shows that this vision of empire came into focus in a series of political conflicts over the Mexican expedition and the ideal organization of Algeria. Its examination of this conversation surrounding empire and its meanings highlights how discourses of European racial superiority over colonial others intersected with arguments about the organization of the French state in nineteenth-century imperial thought. Sign In or Create an Account. Advanced Search.
Imperial Ideologies in the Second Empire | French Historical Studies | Duke University Press
On 31 October , France, the United Kingdom, and Spain agreed to the Convention of London , a joint effort to ensure that debt repayments from Mexico would be forthcoming. On 8 December , the three navies disembarked their troops at the port city of Veracruz , on the Gulf of Mexico. When the British and the Spanish discovered that France had an ulterior motive and unilaterally planned to seize Mexico, they peacefully negotiated an agreement with Mexico to settle the debt issues. Simultaneously, Britain and Spain withdrew from the military coalition agreed to in London, and recalled their forces from Mexico. Many nations proceeded to acknowledge the political legitimacy of the newly created nation state. French imperial expansion into Mexico counterbalanced the geopolitical power of the Protestant Christian United States, by developing a powerful Catholic empire in Latin America, and the exploitation of the mineral wealth of the Mexican north-west.
Second French intervention in Mexico
A nephew of Napoleon I , he was the last monarch to reign over France. Elected to the presidency of the Second Republic in , he seized power by force in , when he could not constitutionally be reelected; he later proclaimed himself Emperor of the French. He founded the Second Empire , reigning until the defeat of the French Army and his capture by Prussia and its allies at the Battle of Sedan in Napoleon III was a popular monarch, who used plebiscites to guide his actions, oversaw the modernisation of the French economy and worked to have the centre of Paris rebuilt following Napoleon III style guidelines. He expanded the French overseas empire and made the French merchant navy the second largest in the world, engaged in the Crimean War , the Second Opium War , the Second Italian War of Independence , the Second Franco-Mexican War , as well as the disastrous Franco-Prussian War , in which he commanded his soldiers during the fight and was captured.
Stiff Mexican resistance caused Napoleon III to order French withdrawal in , a decision strongly encouraged by a United States recovered from its Civil War weakness in foreign affairs. Earlier, during the Civil War, U. Secretary of State William Henry Seward followed a more cautious policy that attempted to keep relations with France harmonious and prevent French willingness to assist the Confederacy.